I would not give up our house to live in an apartment unless it was one of the luxury apartments for Tampa. My wife had been wanting to move to Florida since we first vacationed in Tampa years ago. She kept working on me to make the move permanent. I have a hard time changing my ways. I admit that. However, I do like the warm weather. I thought I would have a hard time with the hot summers, so we did a test and went on vacation to Florida in July instead of January. I had no problems with the sun or heat. I felt invigorated with all that light. That was the last proof I needed before agreeing for us to go ahead and lease a luxury apartment for a year. Continue reading →
This is the true story of the 1840 murder of Nevell Norway, a Cornishman and is one of Cornwall’s infamous murders – although the murder itself was unremarkable it had great media coverage at the time and a strange psychic twist.
Nevell Norway was the great grandfather of the famous author Neville Shute, which has since made it a murder that has continued to draw people’s attention. It was a murder which Conan Doyle detailed in his book “The Edge of the Unknown”.
Mr Nevell Norway was a well-known, popular and philanthropist and well-established timber importer and general shipping merchant who lived at Wadebridge, Cornwall. Born in 1801 and baptized in Egloshayle Church on 5 November, he was the son of William Norway, of Court Place, Egloshayle, who died in 1819.
Nevell Norway or Nevill Norway?
The correct spelling of Nevell Norway’s name, as inscribed on his gravestone and confirmed by his great-grandson, the author Neville Shute, is NEVELL,
The title of books and films have incorrectly followed the original mis-spelling, having taken the wrong spelling from the court transcriptions and media reports at the time.
Murdered by Highway Robbers
As a timber and shipping merchant, Nevell, aged 39, travelled regularly round the local markets, buying and selling. He had a very good reputation locally, his family having traded in the area for generations.
On 8 April 1840 he travelled to Bodmin market, on horseback, the normal mode of transport for the time.
At about 4pm he bought some goods and emptied the contents of his purse out into his hand, he had quite a collection of gold and silver coins – which was not missed by William Lightfoot of Burlorn, Egloshayle, who was passing by.
Once the market closed, Nevell Norway didn’t go straight home, but stayed in Bodmin until just before 10pm. His home in Wadebridge was about 9 miles away, the road was dark and lonely, passing through a lot of woodland and past Dunmeer Wood and Pencarrow Estate.
Nevell was riding a grey horse and started his journey with a companion, Mr Hambly, who was with him for the first three miles, but then branched off in another direction at Mount Charles gate. This left Nevell alone on the road.
A little later, John Hicks, a farmer from St Minver, and a Mr Christopher Bowen, were returning from Bodmin market to Wadebridge on horseback saw a horse in the road at Clapper, saddled and bridled, but without a rider. The horse galloped off and, intrigued, when they encountered two separate men further along the road near Egloshayle Mr Hick asked them if they’d seen the horse. Both had and the second man said he thought that the grey horse belonged to Mr Norway.
Hicks knew where Nevell lived, but didn’t want to knock on his door that late at night – but noticed a light on at the stables, one of Mr Norway’s waggoners, so they called in and asked if Mr Norway was about and told the story of the horse they’d seen. .
Mr Gregory, the waggoner, got a lantern and went out for a look – the grey horse was standing near the stable gate. The horse was checked over and spots of blood were spotted on the saddle. Mr Gregory went off up the road to search for Mr Norway, he was joined by Edward Cavell, one of Mr Norway’s servants who lived at Mr Norway’s house. Mr Hicks went to alert the local Doctor, Mr Tickell, before heading back towards Bodmin. By now it was past 11pm and the body of Mr Norway had been found just the far side of Sladesbridge and was being brought back the two miles to Wadebridge.
The body of Nevell Norway had been found in the stream, at Northill, lying on his back, with his feet towards the road. He was dead. Doctor Tickell performed an examination.
The Doctor found that the deceased had received injuries about the face and head, produced by heavy and repeated blows from some blunt instrument, which had undoubtedly been the cause of death. A wound was discovered under the chin, into which it appeared as if some powder had been carried; and the bones of the nose, the forehead, the left side of the head and the back of the skull were frightfully fractured.
A further examination was made of the spot where the body had been found – and on the left-hand side of the road they found a pool of blood and evidence of a body being dragged from that point, across the road and into the stream. Footprints of more than one person were in the mud and it was deduced that whoever had made the footprints was heavy. There was also evidence of a huge struggle at the scene.
Two separate sets of footmarks could be traced of men pacing up and down behind a hedge in an orchard next to an empty house – evidence of men lying in wait for their intended victim.
A short distance from the pool of blood was found the hammer of a pistol that had been recently broken off.
They checked Nevell Norway’s pockets and realized that the motive must have been robbery as his purse, a tablet and a bunch of keys were missing.
Route and Murder Place: This map shows the route from Bodmin (A) to Wadebridge (F) and the murder spot (C)
Route and Murder Place: This map shows the route from Bodmin (A) to Wadebridge (F) and the murder spot (C) | Source
Map of Route:
A: Bodmin town
B:Mount Charles Gate, where Nevell Norway was alone
C: Murder 1/4 of a mile before Sladesbridge
D:Clapper, where the horse was seen by some
Purple square: Where the Lightfoot brothers lived. They covered the distance from (C) to here across the fields.
This map was compiled using Google Maps and the exact route taken at the time isn’t known, but, from local knowledge and seeing where the streams currently run, it will be a fair estimation.
Finding the Murderers
A reward of £100 was offered for any information that would lead to the murderers being caught, but nobody knew anything. Eventually, a detective from London, called Charles Jackson, was sent for. Jackson managed to find the murderers as he found a Mr Harris, a shoemaker, who said he had seen James and William Lightfoot loitering around the empty cottage at Northill late that night after Bodmin fair.
The next door neighbour of James Lightfoot, Mr Ayres, a blacksmith, said he had heard James coming home very late that night and say something to his wife and child and that Mr Ayres could then hear them crying. Mr Ayres said “The bedroom wall partitions are very thin and there are holes in them. I heard James Lightfoot’s wife and child crying. James Lightfoot said, ‘Lie still! The folks will hear thee, damn thee!’ The wife said, ‘I won’t lie still – they shall hear me and I don’t care if they do!’”
On 14 February, the police searched James Lightfoot’s cottage and found a pistol, without a lock, hidden in a hole in one of the ceiling beams. Lightfoot was acting guiltily so was arrested.
Three days later, on 17 February, James’ brother William was arrested because he had told a Mr Vercoe that it was both of them that had been involved in the murder. At a hearing before a magistrate William made a confession:
Etching used by the Court to show the location of the murder scene.
Etching used by the Court to show the location of the murder scene. | Source
Scene of the Crime
An etching was produced for the Court to show the crime scene. It included marks (labelled A-E), which are not present any more, indicating:
A. The small stream of water into which the body was thrown, after the murder had been perpetrated.
B. Cottage, at the time uninhabited.
C. Part of the road where the attack was commenced.
D. Entrance to the field where the murderers waited for some time for their victim.
E. Field in which Mr. Norway’s hat was found.
William Lightfoot’s Confession:
Three days later, on 17 February, James’ brother William was arrested because he had told a Mr Vercoe that it was both of them that had been involved in the murder. At a hearing before a magistrate William made a confession:
“I went to Bodmin last Saturday week, the 8th instant, and on returning I met my brother James just at the head of Dunmeer Hill. It was just come dim-like. My brother had been to Burlorn, Egloshayle, to buy potatoes. Something had been said about meeting; but I was not certain about that. My brother was not in Bodmin on that day. Mr. Vercoe overtook us between Mount Charles Turnpike Gate at the top of Dunmeer Hill and a place called Lane End.
We came on the turnpike road all the way till we came to the house near the spot where the murder was committed. We did not go into the house, but hid ourselves in a field.
My brother knocked Mr. Norway down; he snapped a pistol at him twice, and it did not go off. Then he knocked him down with the pistol. He was struck whilst on horseback. It was on the turnpike road between Pencarrow Mill and the directing-post towards Wadebridge. I cannot say at what time of the night it was.
We left the body in the water on the left side of the road coming to Wadebridge. We took money in a purse, but I do not know how much it was. It was a brownish purse. There were some papers, which my brother took and pitched away in a field on the left-hand side of the road, into some browse or furze. The purse was hid by me in my garden, and afterwards I threw it over Pendavey Bridge. My brother drew the body across the road to the water. We did not know whom we stopped till when my brother snapped the pistol at him. Mr. Norway said, ‘I know what you are about. I see you.’
We went home across the fields. We were not disturbed by any one. The pistol belonged to my brother. I don’t know whether it was broken; I never saw it afterwards; and I do not know what became of it. I don’t know whether it was soiled with blood. I did not see any blood on my brother’s clothes.
We returned together, crossing the river at Pendavey Bridge and the Treraren fields to Burlorn village. My brother then went to his house and I to mine. I think it was handy about eleven o’clock. I saw my brother again on the Sunday morning. He came to my house. There was nobody there but my own family. He said, ‘Dear me, Mr. Norway is killed.’ I did not make any reply.”
William was then remanded in Bodmin Gaol and en route to the gaol William pointed out the furze bush where Nevell’s belongings were thrown. James was already being held at Bodmin Gaol, where he too had since also made a confession. In James’ confession he blamed William for the murder.
James Lightfoot, hanged for murder. Image published in the local newspapers in 1840.
James Lightfoot, hanged for murder. Image published in the local newspapers in 1840. | Source
James Lightfoot Genealogy:
Born: 1815 in St Breock, Cornwall
Married: Maria Carveth on 5 August 1838 at St Breock, Cornwall.
Children: Maria and James had one daughter between them, Mary Jane Lightfoot, born in 1839. Mary Jane emigrated on 18 September 1855 to Australia where she married John Myers on 6 August 1859 at Balmain, NSW.
Mary Jane changed her surname to that of her mother’s maiden name by the time of the 1851 Census, so was married under the name of Mary Jane Carveth.
Tried and Sentenced to Hang
The two brothers were tried at Bodmin on 30 March 1840, before Mr. Justice Coltman, and found guilt. They were sentenced to death by hanging.
Up to this point the brothers had not had any chance to communicate, so the differences in their stories showed each was trying to save his own skin and frame the other.
Once sentenced, they were put into the same cell – and immediately started arguing and fighting, so they had to be separated and put into separate cells.
Intended to Rob Reverend William Molesworth, St Breock
After sentencing, when in prison, William admitted that his confession been a lie and that they had both arranged to meet, with the purpose of robbing the Reverend William Molesworth, of St Breock, but when William had seen Nevell’s purse full of gold and silver at the market they decided to rob him instead. However, when James had fired his pistol twice at Mr Norway, William had struck Nevell with a stick on the back of his head and knocked him off his horse. James had then battered his head and face with the pistol.
On 7 April 1840 their families came to say their final goodbyes and on the following Monday, 13 April, William Lightfoot (36) and James Lightfoot (23) were hanged at Bodmin Gaol. A report from the time said 10,000 people went to watch the execution, fuelled partly by the recent arrival of the railway line to Bodmin, but additionally because the Bodmin & Wadebridge Railway ran three special excursion trains to Bodmin on 13 April, carrying 1100 passengers to observe the hanging of William and James Lightfoot
William Lightfoot, hanged for muder at Bodmin Jail in 1840.
William Lightfoot, hanged for muder at Bodmin Jail in 1840. | Source
William Lightfoot Genealogy:
William Lightfoot genealogy information:
Born: 1804 at Lower Treneague, St Breock, Cornwall, UK.
Christened: 15 July 1804 at St Breock.
Wife: Maria Harvey (born December 1813 at Downhill, St Eval).
Married: 21 September 1833 at St Breock.
Children of William:: William Henry Lightfoot, Maria Lightfoot, Elizabeth Lightfoot, Angelina Lightfoot.
Parents: John Lightfoot and Elizabeth Penaligon.
The Last Words of William Lightfoot
The execution was reported in the Cornish Guardian on 17 April 1840, along with portraits of the murderers being printed. The local newspaper reported that the prisoners “ate their breakfasts with an appetite and relish which surprised even their attendants, whose long association with criminals had never before made them acquainted with two mortals so indifferent to their approaching death.”
On the scaffold William Lightfoot told the chaplain:
“Remember me to my wife and family and request them to shun the path of vice that I have fallen into.” James Lightfoot said: “Tell my wife and child to go to church regularly.”
More than 500 million active users, an average of 130 friends each a total of 700 billion minutes spent per month with a daily usage of 55 minutes. Just what is it about Facebook that kept us logged like that, we allow it to control our lives and made us become willing contributors to Mark Zuckerberg’s wealth?
Every single states update, photo shared and link posted you have made on your Facebook Wallis actually attributed to a ‘theory on psychology. Abraham Maslow stated that humans have three basic needs, which are for love, affection and a sense of belonging. Jasmine writes: “we might not realize it, but that in sharing with our friends our activities and photographs, we are actually seeking for attention and belongingness.We want people to notice us and we feel better when do and take time to comment on our posts. The best is that it’s OK to do so on Facebook because that’s what Facebook is meant for..I often joke and call all these a case of narcissism!”
In answering the question “Is it true Facebook is like a drug?”, Asker gave this answer: It is like any game or site that draws you in on purpose. I f they can prove that they have a huge following, they make money – plain and simple. They an do advertising and they get paid to put it on their site. The owners of all those games pay Facebook too. The more persons who play the more they owe, so they push the extra money thing so that you get ‘addicted’ and start charging for more points or $$. That is how they make money. We got to keep it simple and play carefully, never spend real money on these sites or it can suck you dry. It is an “Addiction”. there’s always a catch to everything – really.”
The very act, drive and need to always see if the ‘red-number-light is on tends to work like the Pavlovian condition technique. For instance, we subscribe to the e-mail notifications that notify us as soon as someone makes a comment on your post. And we’d check that comment right away. This in some way shows our addiction to Facebook too, as I have commented on the ‘red’ number-light, along with that craving need to know what someone has said in their comments, we do so in order to save a few seconds of “anxiety”. We do really love ourselves that much? Now Facebook is going to empower one’s life.
Understanding Facebook is a very difficult thing to do as it has proliferated in the manner that it has done and is doing. Since it is still a growing medium, this Hub will evolve with its morphing, converging, diverging and streaming nature and how it is affecting and effecting is users. The Hub may be about South African and the whole of the African Continent’s social media, but it is also about how the African people themselves are also affected by what I will try to discuss might be an addiction, too, in their own lives-they are not immune to the effects and affects of Facebook-therefore, it is worth learning about these affects, and this is particularly directed at the Facebookers in South Africa and Africa/Diaspora as a whole, about the addictive nature of Social Media, and those who control it, and how they do it; i.e., this might not be a definite study about Facebook(FB), but it is also a start at looking at FB at its zenith as a social media entity, mammoth business ore and enclave and also, a media environment, and what this means for its users and whether as a consequence this has altered, human perceptions, communications, social relations; and if so,how, it has morphed itself into human communication, interactive, intra-active and interpersonal facilitator of relationships since its introduction.
A cursory look at what Facebook doing what is or affects and effects the South African and the African continent’s social media Facebook milieu and interacting mass consuming and using clientele would be or is in order here. What will be discussed below, also affects any Facebook user all over the world, and these discourses below, also affect everybody on Facebook.. The article I am going to cite below, gives the reader some semblance as to what this Facebook Beast all about, and I think the author speaks to and for the users, at the same time informing those who do not really know what it is about, so that it sort of makes them privy to the innards of this mammoth and ever expanding and and fast-growing section or one of the entity’s of the the matrix as Social Media connections and facilitators for people to connect and communicate globally.
The Following article I am about to cite here, gives us a rough idea what Facebook is about and gives us lessons which will help understanding what one is dealing with when it comes to Facebook Social Media and its business side; media theorists are also utilized to give us clear parameters as about the Subject of Facebook addiction. Other professionals from a myriad disciplines will also be quoted. As a new, growing and emerging media communication systems, facilitator and environment, with its embedded techniques and uniqueness as a medium that dictates human connection and communication and other additional features which it brings into the communication sphere and environ, it is better at times to learn and read what those who started with it and are still the communication mode within the FB Beast have to say about it.
What is important is to know how does media (both the technology and the From High School and many colleges, which traditional media education does not address that question much, and popular culture tends to glorify media for its very existence. Messages, images and text affect us as individuals, families, cultures,nations and as inhabitants of planet earth. What this Hub will attempt to tabulate is that the ‘study of communication systems as complex environments-[and Facebook social media, specifically], wherein the interests in the interactions of communications media, technology, technique, and processes with human feeling, thought, value and behavior’ form a confluence-it is better to unpack it and see it in its loose and different parts.
So that, the ecology and essence of the Facebook(FB), is captured succintly by Lance Strate who when he describes “Media Ecology(One can replace it when trying to define Facebook), says that “it is a way of studying the postindustrial and the postmodern, and the preliterate and prehistoric of media logic, medium theory, technological determinism, as hard and soft, technologically evolving mediology.” This really means that understanding the technology, techniques, media, medium and communication is essential if we are to control and apply it for the Human Good. We need to use the latter advice and definition whenever we are dealing with Facebook and trying to understand it as a medium which has techniques of facilitating the intra and interaction through use of different gadgets of Facebook within an environment dictated and facilitated for by Facebook through its use of the Web.
In this same context, I am fully cognizant of and conversant with the ideas of Neil Post wherein he notes that the ‘environments, their structure, content and people-as we should by now recognize- media environments, are after all, complex message systems which imposes on human beings ways of thinking, feeling and behaving’- in that :
it structures what we can see and say and, therefore, do.
It assigns roles to us and insists on our playing them.
It specifies what we are permitted to do and what we are not.
In the case of media environments (e.g., books, radio, film, television, Internet Facebook, etc.), the specifications are more often implicit and informal, half concealed by our assumption that what we are dealing with is not only an environment but merely a machine. Whilst describing the Facebook(FB) as we have done and are still going to do (in the case of South Africa and Africa), I am interrogating or trying to find our what roles the media designs for us to play, how FB structures what we are seeing, think, doing, feeling, etc.,, why the Facebook and its media makes us feel and act as we do. This hub seeks to look at and discuss Facebook media as environments and how , in the case of Facebook, it dulls the mind, dumbs us down and habituates us to it in an addictive manner, that we end up losing control of our core being. The environment of Facebook(FB), is one specific environments that I will discuss below.
Something About The Environment of Facebook(FB)…
This Article from CNN informs us thus: “Facebook advocates are touting the company’s initial public offering this week — the biggest ever for an Internet company– as if it will save the net, the economy and the American way. Its detractors see the final chapter in the rise and fall of a smart but solipsistic Harvard dropout, and predict the inevitable decline of Facebook’s stock will spell the end to innovation in social media. Internet Bubble 2.0.
Of course, none of this is true. Such hyperbole is more about our traditional media’s need for simple stories than anything happening at Facebook or on Wall Street. These are the judgments of financial analysts who don’t even know what API stands for (Application Program Interface), and technology analysts who never heard of the Greenshoe option (the provision for an underwriter to oversell).
This factless speculation, combined with the risk-off jitters of the greater markets, has led to the conflation of stock value with business, and one social media company with the future of the net. If the dot.com bubble and more recent stock market crash should have taught us anything, it’s that stock prices have been uncoupled from business profitability, which has in turn been uncoupled from value creation.
Facebook can still be one of the most successful and significant companies of the past 100 years without being nearly worth an IPO valuation of $100 billion. Meanwhile, traders buying stock at that valuation can still make billions more over the next hours or days, even if the stock then plummets or slowly peters out. Likewise, Facebook can shoot to a sustained stock market success even without showing a reasonable profit for many years. Finally, Facebook can become the biggest stock market and business loser since Lucent (who?) without taking the Internet or social media down with it.” The last time I checked, which is very recent, the stocks of Facebook were rising admirably and sharply
Sourcing for house drawing plans on-line has become a less expensive option for people planning to build affordable homes without having to expend thousands of dollars.
They will rather find ways to save on the exorbitant costs of employing the services of architects, structural engineers, etc. (especially small home designs), for producing blueprints of house drawing plans.
With the recession and downturn of government economies world over, many have become more realistic about finding ways to save money in all aspects of their lives. And finding ways to get affordable and smaller home designs is not an exception.
Many have been trying to sell off their large homes for more compact small home designs, but there aren’t many buyers out there remotely interested in getting big or overstated homes.
Enough are not buying, and the real estate industry feels the pinch because in the not too distant past, those looking out to buy large and luxurious homes were the ‘toast’ of real estate agents.
Related: Homes Built on Narrow Lots
Modest Home Design
Modest Home Design
How to Get Smaller Homes Drawing Plans On-line
Home-owners with large and expansive homes suddenly woke up to realise they didn’t need so much space after all. Small home designs became the preferred option resulting in the demand for house drawing plans on-line which costs much less than getting them done off-line.
The on-line demand for building design blueprints of smaller homes has increased considerably over the past few years.
House Drawing Plans – Small Home Designs
House Drawing Plans – Small Home Designs
Why Modest Home Designs are the Preferred Choice
Many new and experienced home seekers, especially first time home buyers, want smaller homes because of qualities that were never really considered decades ago.
And contrary to the belief in some quarters, having a smaller house does not mean that dreams of a beautiful home cannot be imagined. Even small home designs can fit into our big dreams.
Now they clamour for house drawing plans with designs that are smaller because it is now accepted that small home designs are:
Cost efficient. It saves so much money building smaller homes, the plot is smaller and the house drawing plans will cost much less.
Energy efficient, much more than larger homes.
Compact and can be made to have a cosy or minimalist theme successfully.
Tailored to fit. No one really needs any home space that is larger than is required by the whole family, even including a guest.
The answer to who invented the electric water heater begins around 1850 with an experiment that was created in which both water and bath, on the underneath side, were heated by gas jets. An Englishman Benjamin Maughan, however in 1868 invented the first instant water heater called “The Geyser”, a device where the water was heated as it flowed into the bath. They were known to be quite dangerous.
Maughn’s invention influenced the designs of a Norwegian mechanical engineer by the name of Edwin Ruud, who immigrated to Pittsburg. Ruud who invented the electric water heater (automatic storage) in 1889, founded the Ruud Manufacturing Company, which is still in operation today, and pioneered the advancement of water heaters, in both the residential and commercial market.
The Water Heater is still sometimes referred to as a geyser in the UK. Other terms include: an electric water boiler, electric dispensing pot, or electric water urn.
There are various kinds of water heaters. The most common water heaters are the storage water heaters. Instantaneous (tankless) water heaters are newer on the market, and newer still, solar water heaters.
Storage Tank Water Heaters:
This is typically the kind of water heater you saw growing up, the big white tank often beside the furnace. Tank type water heaters come in different varieties – gas, oil & electric. This refers to the type of burner used to heat the water. Energy efficiencies between the different types of burners on the tank water heaters can differ greatly. In this tank, cold water is used to fill the tank, and an element, usually near the top & bottom inside the tank is used to heat it. In between the inside tank and the outer shell is often insulation to help keep the water hot, without the elements having to do all of the work.
Instantaneous Water Heaters:
Instantaneous Water Heaters, also called Tankless Water Heaters are just that. They do not have a tank, and therefore are thought to be more energy efficient. Sometimes they are called an in-line water heater, as it only heats the water it needs as it passes through, and therefore energy is not wasted by heating extra water all day that is not in use.
Other terms for Tankless Water Heaters is Combination Water Heaters, Combi Boilers, Continuous Flow Water Heaters, Inline Water Heaters, Flash Water Heaters, On-Demand Water Heaters or Instant-On Water heaters.
These particular Water Heaters are rapidly gaining in popularity and will soon become the standard. Often, one main Tankless Water Heater will be installed near the furnace, and supplemental smaller Tankless Water Heaters will be situated in tactical spots, such as a far reaching bathrooms, etc to be located right where the water is being used. This strategy saves water as well as energy, thereby making this option one of the most efficient, as well as saving on space.
Solar Water Heaters:
If you’re fortunate enough to live someplace sunny most of the year around, a solar powered water heater may be an option for you. Solar collectors are typically installed on the exterior of the building on the roof or nearby. If insufficient sunlight or at night, an automatic sensor turns off and keeps the remaining water from cooling.
For colder climates, you’re not out of luck. The evacuated tube collector solar powered water heater is an alternate type of solar water heater, smaller and deemed more efficient, also roof mounted, is said to work very well in cold climates.
True to its name, the evacuated tube collector solar powered water heater has a row of glass tubes which contain heat conducting rods. Inside the heating rods is antifreeze, which is in a circulating loop. The heat is captured and transferred into a heat exchanger. The result is excellent, with very low heat loss due to the fact that once the inside coating has absorbed solar radiation, the air has been evacuated from the glass tubes to create a vacuum.
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The phrase “minority rights” conjures abhorrent images of Palestinians tortured in Israeli prisons; Aegean Macedonians expelled from Greece or incarcerated on remote islands, there to perish; and Native-Americans confined to wasteland “reservations”, having been decimated for decades. But, the sad truth is that minorities are welcome nowhere and that every single nation harbors embarrassing skeletons in its historical closet.
Consider Norway, by far the least plausible candidate for the role of perpetrators of genocide, physical or cultural. This remote Scandinavian polity has repeatedly won every conceivable prize for upholding and cherishing human rights. Yet, it, too, has a dark chapter that ended only recently.
During the 18th and 19th centuries, many Finns – destitute farmers and fishermen – emigrated from their homeland and from Sweden and settled in the inhospitable northern reaches of Norway. They joined the original inhabitants of that area, Finns known as Sami. The new arrivals came to be known as Kvener (in Norwegian), Kvenee (in their own Finnish dialect), or simply Kven, by everyone else.
Fully one quarter of the population in the north identified themselves as Kven in the census of 1875 – yet, it took their adopted country two centuries (and a parliamentary investigative committee) to recognize them a minority (in 1996) and to accept their right to use their language (in 2005) within the framework of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.
Still, this may have been too little, too late. In the intervening period, the word “Kven” has been used as a pejorative by the Kvens’ upstanding “ethnically pure Norwegian” compatriots. Kven and Sami culture and languages were considered backward and inferior (with racist undertones). Across the border, in Sweden, Samis were compulsorily sterilized.
In Norway, the Kven and Sami were re-labeled “The Foreign Nations” (non-Nordic, of Mongol roots) and “The Original Immigrants” (a falsification of history, as the Norwegians were the immigrants, not the Sami).
The mandate of the “Finn Fund”, established in the 19th century by the Norwegian National Assembly, called on it to “civilize” the Kven and the Sami. Even after World War II, as Norway sought to “modernize” itself, Kven and Sami civilizations were cast as outdated and primitive.
Consequently, many Kvens now claim counterfactually to be Norwegians (or merely Norwegian Finns) and consider the Kven language to be a dialect of Finnish.
Inevitably, in a nationalistic backlash, some Kven now insist that they are the aborigines of northern Europe and that once, in the 11th century, they ran an empire that covered most of northern Scandinavia. Groups of opportunistic Swedish Finns support these theories in an attempt to leverage the ILO 169 Convention about the Rights of Indigenous People and apply it to Sweden’s Kvens.
Be that as it may, the truth is that Norway had made it exceedingly difficult for Kvens (and other Finns, such as the Sami people) to obtain citizenship or maintain it and literally impossible to buy real estate – unless they agreed to change their names, give up their language and culture and, later, move away from sensitive border areas (they were considered pro-Russian, then pro-German and, therefore, a security risk). Additionally, lands in the public domain (in truth, owned by the Sami and Kven) were declared to be state property and confiscated without compensation.
This discriminatory policy was known as fornorskningspolitikken (Norwegianization).
Thus, for instance, well into the 1950s, it was forbidden to teach the Sami language in schools (with a few exceptions in the 1930s and 1940s). The very existence of the Sami nation (as a minority) was acknowledged only in 1989, after massive demonstrations in 1979 (ostensibly against the construction of an environmentally-disruptive dam, but actually to air Sami grievances).
Only in the 1990s were some of the wrongs righted: the Sami language was declared a “national treasure” (and a second official language in Norway), a Sami parliament was established, and lands appropriated by the state were returned to the Sami people.
The Kven are envious of the Samis’ achievements. Well into the 1990s, they were still being labeled “immigrants” (and not a minority) by the Norwegian state.
In 1987, they established The Norwegian Kven Organization. Its aims are both political and cultural: the ultimate compilation of a government report about the Kven population; liaising with the Norwegian media; to push for the establishment of a State Secretary for Kven issues; to further the knowledge of the Kven language, from the kindergarten level onwards, using the proceeds of a Kven culture fund and income from museums and culture centers. The Kven also demand bilingual signage and place names.
Yet, only after Norway ratified, in 1999, the Council of Europe’s Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, did it reluctantly alter the Kvens’ status and accept that they are a “national minority”: a collective with a historical presence (longer than 100 years) in a given territory. Now, only Norway and Canada (and maybe Australia) maintain a three-tiered hierarchy of “nations”: indigenous, minority, and immigrants.
Even so, Norway is light years ahead of countries such as Israel and Greece who completely deny the existence of their minorities. Israel had insisted until quite recently that the Palestinian “nation” is an invention and the Greeks refuse to this very day to accept the existence of a Macedonian minority (or any other non-Greeks, for that matter) on Greek soil.
The island of Cozumel is one of the prime cruise destinations in the Caribbean and Mexico, welcoming a significant share of Caribbean cruise tourists to enjoy its traditional Mexican town center and beautiful natural surroundings. Many of these cruise passengers later become interested in buying Cozumel Real Estate, first searching Cozumel MLS listings on the internet, then contacting an agent, exploring their real estate options, and finally return to the island to finalize their Mexico Real Estate purchase. For this reason many of the same aspects that attract cruises to the island later attract foreigners to buy MLS properties on Cozumel.
In 2010, cruise visits to the island have been off to a strong start. During the week of January 4 to 10, Cozumel welcomed 21 cruises, only a couple less than the 23 which arrived the week before, between December 28 and January 3 2010. The following is a breakdown of cruise visits by day.
On Janaury 4, Carnival Liberty arrived in Cozumel, and on the January 5, the cruises Fantasy and Carnival Inspiration arrived, as well as Voyager of the Seas. The sixth of January Cozumel welcomed the Crown Princess, Carnival Legend, and Carnival Imagination. On the seventh Grandeur of the Seas, Independence of the Seas, Ecstasy and Carnival Triumph arrived. On the eighth the cruise ships Carnival Valor, Norwegian Spirit, Costa Fortuna, Carnival Conquest, Liberty of the Seas docked on the island, and on Saturday, January 9, Navigator of the Seas, Carnival Inspiration, Fantasy, Columbus and Carnival Destiny were welcomed to the island.
As this list shows us, Cozumel attracts the most prestigious cruises in the area, in addition to attracting large numbers of both ships and visitors. This leads to the question – why do cruise visitors become interested in buying real estate here and making this island their new home? It’s virtually the same reasons that attract the cruises in the first place. Visitors arriving are welcomed by the more traditionally Mexican town center, with its town square decorated by trees, gardens, benches and walkways. Surrounding the town square are many little shops, selling local hand crafts, as well as excellent restaurants and museums. For those that choose to buy real estate on the island, this quaint atmosphere is embellished with many options of activities, such as snorkeling, diving, boating or fishing. Many of the MLS properties on the island are also in close proximity to Cozumel’s beautiful natural settings.
The healthy number of cruise visits to Cozumel shows that the island will not loose its appeal, either for visitors or for residents; and those that buy real estate in Cozumel will also find that leading a relaxing life in a place that balances tradition with nature and convenience also does not loose its appeal. Those who like the sound of this kind of lifestyle should browse through Cozumel’s MLS listings; they’ll definitely find the perfect property for the lifestyle of their dreams.
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/3658547
An architectural masterpiece is a building that has been carefully designed by the architect to bring out a particular uniqueness.
Buildings such as the Sydney Opera House constructed between 1957 and 1973 and designed by Architect Jorn Utzon from Denmark are masterpieces that will forever become major landmarks due to their unique designs.
An example in Kenya is the Kenyatta International Conference Centre which has graced the covers of postcards for years since it was constructed.
From Rahimtulla natural stone finishes
The KICC building was designed by Norwegian Architect Karl Henric Nostoric in 1967. The architect was inspired by the traditional African architecture, mainly the hut. The late president Jomo Kenyatta was also instrumental in guiding the architect regarding the African concept.
This brought out a unique Architectural masterpiece which has unanimously won the hearts and eyes of many Kenyans to be the best designed high-rise building in Nairobi.
The use of just one colour and rough texture on the exterior that looks close to the traditional African adobe house increases the aesthetic appeal in that its comfortable to look at-it does not look too ‘busy’ like other high rise buildings that have multi colours and textures on the exterior.
The perfect balance achieved through the shape of the tall structure versus the pyramid also helps in creating the aesthetic appeal.
No other building in Nairobi CDB can hold a candle to KICC.
Buildings that have been designed to be unique usually give better returns to their owners in terms of rents.
Since the buildings are attractive, they will always have a higher demand for rent hence the rent shoots up. Most well-to-do institutions require such buildings which are landmarks in themselves. This helps in their marketing since their customers can easily relate their location hence more business. It in turn works out as a win-win situation between the land lord and the tenants in that the land lord charges a higher rent while the tenants have more customers due to their prestigious and conspicuous physical address.
ENHANCING PROPERTY VALUE
Developers who acquire land in an area that is generally viewed as undesirable can use architectural design to enhance the value of their real estate.
A good example is the Motor World Centre at the Jogoo road/Landhies road roundabout. The area has several unkempt buildings that would not fetch competitive rents in the market place. The Motor World Centre has been uniquely designed to be very attractive therefore its true potential is realized even though its surrounded by the un-maintained buildings.
RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE
Residential buildings designed uniquely always attract more tenants than the ordinary ones. In Kenya, unfortunately, the housing deficit is approximately 100,000 units per year.This means that even poorly designed buildings will attract tenants. In other countries such as South Africa where the housing deficit is not high, its design that sells. The well-designed houses will sell faster than the badly designed ones. Therefore, most developers in these countries usually put a lot of emphasis on design to be able to attract buyers and tenants.
Since buildings last for tens of years, its advisable for a developer to request their architect to come up with a unique design since as time passes by, the housing deficit keeps reducing so there will come a time where the design will be the single most important factor in attracting good rents.
The Real Estate Investor
A real estate investor makes money through real estate. An active investor that is good at analyzing real estate market values and trends can become rich. Investors use several different methods to turn a profit in the real estate market. This article discusses the following types of real estate investments: development properties, distress properties, fixer-uppers, long-term investments and rentals.
Real estate investors that specialize in developing properties are often called developers. Developers purchase bare land and build on it. Alternatively, they may purchase land with an existing structure and tear it down to build a new structure, or add more structures to the property. The developer builds on the property and sells the developed property for a profit. A small development can consist of a small plot of land that one house is built on. A large development can consist of an apartment complex, office complex or a retail complex.
Some real estate investors look for properties that are in threat of foreclosure, are in foreclosure, or have been foreclosed on and are bank owned. These types of properties are called distress properties because the owner of the property is close to losing his home. Investors can often purchase these properties for less than their market value, because the owners are desperate to get out of a property that they cannot afford.
For instance, if the seller purchased a house for $100,000 and has paid off $50,000 of the home loan, he may sell to the investor for $60,000 and lose the majority of the money he have paid into the property. The seller takes the loss to prevent a foreclosure on his credit file. Investors can usually purchase bank-owned properties for a fraction of the market value, because the bank often is just looking to recoup the remaining balance owed on the loan before foreclosure.
Real estate investors often purchase fixer-upper properties, fix them and sell them for a profit. Fixer-upper properties are usually a quick turnaround investment. The investor purchases the property, quickly has the repairs done, and instantly puts the property back up for sale.
Long-term investments are properties that the investor buys and holds on to for a long time. Investors buy the property when the market is down and sell it when the market is high. Another strategy is to buy a property in an area that has very little development and wait for the area to grow in population. Once the population increases and development starts to increase, the property is worth more money and the investor sells it.
Investors usually rent out properties that they are keeping for long-term investments. The rental income helps to pay for the property while it sits. One strategy that many investors use is to sell a house with owner financing. This is a popular strategy in a down market. Say the investor wants to sell a property, but the market is down. The investor offers the property for sell with owner financing. People with poor credit who cannot obtain a conventional loan through a bank will often overpay for a house that is offered for sale with owner financing.